Friday, March 20, 2020
Friday Essays - Friday, Ice Cube, Life In The Ghetto, Marijuana Leaf Friday The movie Friday is a comedy, but it also depicts many important social issues. The story is set in the city of Los Angelos, California, in what could be called a high class ghetto. The main theme of the movie is about a young black man who looses his job and is influenced by his best friend to smoke marijuana. The movie also shows the relationships of his family and other members of his neighborhood. With a zany cast of characters and a hilarious script this movie touches on everything from gang violence to the use of drugs, crime, guns, relationships, sex and life in the ghetto. Because of all these issues, I found this an interesting movie with a wide variety of topics to address. Marijuana has been around for a long time. It's use is once again becoming popular. Although it's not legal, many people use it socially and for medicinal purposes. The Hollywood elite smoke it. Musicians such as Dr. Dre and the Black Crows celebrate it's use. Television shows like Saturday Night Live and Kids In the Hall depict it as harmless fun. Marijuana fashion has grown into a ten million dollar industry, with the seven branch marijuana leaf showing up on caps, T-shirts, earrings and tattoos. Studies show that after a decade of declining drug use, marijuana use has increased sharply among school students and college students in the last two years (Duschbaun 8). In the movie Friday, rap star Ice Cube plays the character Craig. Craig has never smoked marijuana. However, his best friend "Smokey" smokes marijuana everyday. Craig looses his job, leaving him home all day with nothing to do to occupy his time. He just hangs out in the neighborhood with his friends. Smokey tries to convince Craig to try some marijuana. At first Craig doesn't want to. Smokey is persistent. He points out to Craig that he doesn't have to work and doesn't have anything better to. Craig and Smokey eventually sit on the front porch and get stoned. Peer pressure is obviously the only reason Craig gives in. Actually he had other options, but he chose not to use them. Common sense and a simple explanation would have worked for aig just fine (How to Say No and Keep Your Friends 23) Everyday we are faced with choices. It is up to us to decide what's right and wrong. Craig decides to try it and things start to happen that he really doesn't like. Craig and Smokey get into some trouble with the neighborhood dealer, Big Worm. Smokey sells pot for him, but can't pay him the money he owes because he and Craig smoked the pot. Big Worm threatens them and sends a gang of "hoods" after them with guns. They just barely escape and are scared shitless. The amount of gang violence that can be contributed to the use and sale of illegal drugs has risen dramatically in the past seven years (Gates 67). It's no wonder that this is happening with th use of marijuana becoming so popular again. Violence and crime are issues we hear about every day. We can watch any news broadcast and see the evidence of these increasingly worrisome problems. In Friday, both of these issues are very apparent. Debone, the neighborhood thief and "bully" is constantly harassing the people in Craig's neighborhood. He breaks into their homes, steals their possessions, beats people up to take their jewelry and other items and is just generally a pain in everyones ass. He is the most violent person in the movie Craig gets into a fight with him and pulls a gun on Debone. Craig feels confused and not sure what to do. His father convinces him to give him the gun. He insists that Craig should fight like a man with his fists. I don't think that was very good a ice. Debone was twice as big as Craig and probably 100 pounds heavier. They do fight and surprisingly Craig wins. You would think that most problems can be solved without violent acts. The reality is that sometimes, under certain circumstances, t hat ust doesn't work. Obviously, this was one of those times. Sexual promiscuity was also depicted in this movie. Craig's
Tuesday, March 3, 2020
Definition and Discussion of the Minutes of a Meeting In business writing, minutes are the official written record of a meeting. Minutes serve as a permanent record ofÃ the topics considered, conclusions reached, actions taken, and assignments given.Ã Minutes may be kept by any individual in attendance at a meeting and are usually distributed to all members of the unit represented at the meeting.Minutes are generally written in the simple past tense. The Main Parts of Meeting Minutes Many organizations use a standard template or a special format for keeping minutes, and the order of the parts may vary. HeadingThe name of the committee (or other unit) and the date, location, and starting time of the meeting.ParticipantsThe name of the person conducting the meeting along with the names of all those who attended the meeting (including guests) and those who were excused from attending.Approval of previous minutesA note on whether the minutes of the previous meeting were approved and whether any corrections were made.Action items (including unfinished business from the previous meeting)A report on each topic discussed at the meeting. (For each item, note the subject of the discussion, the name of the person who led the discussion, and any decisions that may have been reached.)AnnouncementsA report on any announcements made by participants, including proposed agenda items for the next meeting.Next MeetingA note on where and when the next meeting will be held.AdjournmentA note on the time the meeting ended.Signature lineThe name of the person who prepared the minutes and the date they wer e submitted. Observations A good set of minutesÃ can give the group a sense of progress; incoherent jottings (which may more closely resemble verbatim transcripts) leave everyone bewildered.(David R. Buchanan, An Ethic for Health Promotion: Rethinking the Sources of Human Well-Being. Oxford University Press,Ã 2000)In writing minutes, be clear, comprehensive, objective, and diplomatic. Do not interpret what happened; simply report it. Because meetings rarely follow the agenda perfectly, you might find it challenging to provide an accurate record of the meeting. If necessary, interrupt the discussion to request clarification.Do not record emotional exchanges between participants. Because minutes are the official record of the meeting, you want them to reflect positively on the participants and the organization.(Mike Markel, Technical Communication, 9th ed. Bedford/St. Martins, 2010)Guidelines for Writing Meeting Minutes- The recorder should be able to write the minutes in near final form as the meeting prog resses.- The minutes should focus on results and agreed-on actions. . . .- The minutes should be highly summarized, not a burden to read. Be brief; summarize outcomes and points of agreement and disagreement; dont record detailed input.- Avoid writing minutes for the purpose of informing those absent from the meeting.- Write the minutes soon after the meeting and distribute them promptly (within a day or two).(Murray Hiebert and Bruce Klatt, The Encyclopedia of Leadership: A Practical Guide to Popular Leadership. McGraw-Hill, 2001) The Lighter Side of Minutes Russell StringerÃ Bell:Ã [W]hat is that?Sean ShamrockÃ McGinty: Robert Rules say we gotta have minutes for a meeting, right? These the minutes.Russell Stringer Bell:Ã [I]s you taking notes on a criminal . . . conspiracy?(Idris Elba and Richard Burton in Straight and True. The Wire, 2004)
Sunday, February 16, 2020
The Childhood Phase of a Person - Essay Example The childhood phase of a person is developed through his activities in a school. The major part of the childhood of a person is spent in the schools. The preliminary and secondary schools are the basic foundations on which the overall values, goals, and personality of a person are developed. However, special care must be taken by the schools as organizations to foster the well-being and safety of the children attending their schools. The transition from one school to another may be a new experience for the children which involves stress and requires adjustment on the part of the children1. A transition phase encompasses the loss of old friendships formed in the schools and finding their place in a new environment. These may add to the worry of the children when joining a new school. The adjustment of the children in the new environments should also be supported by the schools so that the children can deal with the stress and imbalances associated with the transition process. The spor ts activities and social activities in secondary schools can support the children to become adjusted and involved in the new environment easily. Also, the people at home may also be helpful in guiding and supporting the children in adapting to the transition process more easily. Managing the emotional and physical health of children is necessary to ensure that they do not succumb to the stress caused by the transition phase. Schools not only play an influential role in the learning and development of children but they are equally important in developing hygienic concerns and healthy outlooks from the early years of the children. The schools play important roles in shaping up the good habits of the children with respect to hygiene, health, and safety.Ã
Sunday, February 2, 2020
Law - Literature review Example These researchers intend to suggest serious steps for helping families going through divorces by executing results of their studies to legislators, authorities and the international figures.1 In a research conducted by Kaslow2013the author showed that the rising number of divorce around the world are caused by a variety of economic, cultural and social factors that are negatively affecting the marriage institution. Various cultures all over the world has started to embrace divorce among the population and providing for the rights of the women and children in the divorce. Most of the legal and economic blunt all around the world is seen to be borne by the men in payment of court fees, alimony and maintenance.2 In another research on the international family laws byBaarsma 2011 and in Stark 20133, it has been established that various countries have enacted legislations and legal procedures to help the courts in the dispensation of divorce matters. Some countries have also taken legal and social steps to help reduce the high rate of divorces in their countries. It has been suggested that governments should give consideration to the implementation of international laws on matters of personal status law together with local regulations and monitoring these laws effectively. The governments have been urged to provide information and counselling programmes on divorce and the equal rights and responsibilities of marriage. According to the Hague Convention relating to the settlement of the conflicts of law and jurisdiction as regards to divorce and separation, a divorce can only be allowed if the national laws of a country where the divorce petition is lodged allow for divorce, this has been modified by various states legislation to allow that a divorce can only be issued in the state where the marriage was celebrated. In Hodson, Blackburn &Hodson,
Saturday, January 25, 2020
Reducing Adverse Drug Events in Older Adults Gabrielle S. Buma With age comes the prospect of multiple health problems that may require treatment with several medications and multiple prescribers. The likelihood of morbidities and comorbidities such as, heart disease, arthritis, diabetes, and hypertension increases with age. Many older adults also take over the counter medications, vitamins, and other supplements along with their prescribed medications. The use of these multiple kinds of medications is called polypharmacy, and if done so correctly the use of multiple medications can have positive results in the treatment and maintenance of disease but if not used correctly the drugs could be less effective and result in expensive drug-related morbidity and mortality. The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality claim that more than 770,000 people are injured or die each year from Adverse Drug Effects (ADEs) (Lynn, 2012). What makes this even more of a concern is that many experts believe that ADEs are significantly underreported. According to the Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, the annual cost associated with drug-related morbidity and mortality has been estimated to be at around $177 billion (Roth, Weinberger Campbell, 2009). Many factors play a role in the quality medication use in older adults; these factors can be considered overuse, underuse, and misuse. The misuse of medication that leads to adverse drug effects in older adults can be greatly reduced by improving health literacy and prescribing physician and patient communication. According to the Institute of Medicine, health literacy is considered an individualÃ¢â¬â¢s capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions (Martin, Kripalani, DuRapau, 2013). Currently in the United States, the older adults that are 65 years and older represent the largest group with the lowest general literacy and health literacy skills in the country (Bennett, Chen, Soroui White, 2009). This means that there is a large portion of the older adults over 65 that are making health decisions with the likelihood of not fully understanding them. Older adults over 65 years of age also have the highest rate of chronic illness of any other age group. The combination of low levels of literacy and high prevalence of multiple chronic conditions with multiple medications are major contributing factors to the high rate of ADEs in older adults. The article, Preventing Medication Errors, in the Institute of Medicine c ited that poor patient comprehension and unintentional misuse of prescription drugs as a significant cause for medication error and worse health outcomes (Martin, Kripalani, DuRapau, 2013). Many older adults are simply accidentally misusing prescribed medications due to a low level of health literacy. Low literacy in older adults and Medicare recipients affects their understanding of complex medication labels, instructions, and regimens (Martin, Kripalani, DuRapau, 2013). A way to improve older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of prescription drugs especially among those with limited literacy is greatly needed to prevent unintentional use that lead to AEDs, before the improvement can be made we need to first understand the factors associated with patients understanding of prescription drugs and their labeling. According to the National Assessment of Adult Literacy, adults who are socioeconomically disadvantaged that are a part of minority groups are more likely to be in poorer health (Davis, Wolf, Bass, Middlebrooks, Kennen, Baker, . . . . Parker, 2006 ). In the study, Low Literacy Impairs Comprehension of Prescription Drug Warning Labels, the authors measured a group of 251 adultÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to correctly interpret commonly used prescription medication labels. They measured the participantÃ¢â¬â¢s health literacy by having an expert panel evaluating the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s interpretation of the commonly used prescription medication labels. The results showed that one-third of patients were reading at or below a 6th grade level and that a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s comprehension of warning labels was associated with their level of literacy. The result that low literacy is associated with low comprehension and a difficulty understanding of warning labels on prescription medications is not a surpris e because the labels use terminology about a 6th grade reading level (Davis, Wolf, Bass, Middlebrooks, Kennen, Baker, . . . . Parker, 2006 ). The multistep instructions were found difficult for patients across all literacy levels. I found it surprising that the multistep instructions were difficult for all reading levels, but the study explains that the more steps a labels has the less concise and clear it tends to be to the patient. If the multistep instructions are a challenge for all literacy levels to understand then I would assume that it is quite challenging for a large population of the older adults who tend to have the lowest levels of literacy and so many different medications to keep track of with each having multistep directions. The study did offer recommendations that would help the understanding of medication labels for all literacy levels. These recommendations include; warning labels being developed with consumer participation, especially with lower literate populations, attempt to keep the steps short, clear and concise with familiar words and recognizable icons. After reading this study, I was surprised to learn that more prescription drug labels are not developed with the use of consumer participation, one would assume the in the developing of the instructions that it would be a priority to develop the instructions with consumer participation. It seems that more consumer participation with all health literacy levels would help create more user friendly labels that could result in a significant decrease in misuse of prescription drugs. The study, Improving Medication Management among At-risk Older Adults, evaluates health literacy but also medication self-efficacy and medication adherence. One reference in the study shows an alarming 54.3% of Medicare enrollees with limited health literacy were unable to understand what is considered simple medication instructions such as. Ã¢â¬Å"take on an empty stomach, Ã¢â¬ (Martin, Kripalani, DuRapau, 2013). The study describes a quality improvement pilot project where they provide at-risk older adults with illustrated medication instructions as an approach to improve medication understating use. In the quality improvement pilot project they evaluated the effect of their intervention on the older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence in managing their medication and their self-reported adherence. This study, Improving Medication Management among At-risk Older Adults, took place at an adult day center were medication errors and misunderstanding medication instructions were identified as a problem. The authors and staff provided the adult day care centerÃ¢â¬â¢s participants with illustrated depiction of their daily schedule PictureRxÃ¢â ¢ with the goal to improve the older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s understanding of medication instructions and improve medication safety. The illustrated aid shows the older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s medications pictorially, uses what they consider plain language for the instructions, and uses icons to aid patients in understanding the purpose and the dosing schedule (Martin, Kripalani, DuRapau, 2013). The PictureRx cards were used for six weeks and then the participants were surveyed along with reassessing their self-efficacy and adherence, as well as their perception on the PictureRx cards. The results showed that after the use of the PictureRx cards the participants reported much less forms of non-adherence and confidence significantly improved in areas of self-efficacy, such as correctly taking medications and following a routine. This article provides a valuable assessment of older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s health literacy and applies an intervention that resulted in an improved adherence and self-efficacy in older adults. When comparing the participant assessment before for the use of PictureRx and then the reassessment after shows a notably significant improvement. This pilot study shows an efficient way to improve older adultÃ¢â¬â¢s various health literacy levels and provides them with a way to better understand their overall medication regimens. I think something very similar to the PictureRx would be a great tool to implement for pharmacists when filling medications for older adults at the pharmacy and can provide a good reference for doctors when explaining medications to patients especially since doctors are so limited on the amount of time they can spend with a patient. Proper patient provider communication plays a huge role in a patientÃ¢â¬â¢s ability to understand their medications and ability to properly follow their medication regimes. Good communication about health history and medications with a provider and a patient could prevent the misuse of medication and an ADE. Before prescribing a new medication, the prescribing doctor is supposed to review the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s current medications, including over the counter medications, vitamins, supplements, and the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s health history. The article, Physician Communication When Prescribing New Medications from the Archives of Internal Medicine recommends that prescribing physicians should educate their patients about their medicationÃ¢â¬â¢s purpose, how and when to take it, and the medications expected adverse effects. The patient and physician interaction is an opportunity for the physician to educate the patient on these topics which may reduce nonadherence that can be a result from poor understanding about medication use. The article also describes and assesses the quality of physician communication with patients about newly prescribed medications. The authors assess the providerÃ¢â¬â¢s communication through an observational study that combined patient and physician surveys and audiotaped 860 of the 909 participating patients while 270 new medications were prescribed (Tarn, Heritage, Hays Kravitz, 2006). During these visits the authors measured the quality of physician communication when prescribing new medications. The study by Tarn, Heritage, Hays, and Kravitz found that physicians stated full medication dosing directions for less than 60% of all of the medications that had been prescribed and informed the patients about the duration intake and ADEs for one third of the time. The study shares that ADEs were addressed for 35% of the medications and how long to take the medication was addressed at 34%. Although patients may be able to find information about their medications from different sources such as, a pharmacists and medication package inserts, information from their visits with the prescribing physician is inadequate to meet the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s needs. Conclusion The study found that the use of precise wording on prescription drug label instructions can improve patient understanding of how to take the medication patients with limited literacy were more likely to misinterpret instructions despite use of more explicit language Patients that have a limited literacy rate and those who are taking more medications are at a greater risk for misuse. Reference Page Davis, T. C., Federman, A. D., Wolf, M. S. (2009). Improving patient understanding of prescription drug label instructions. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 24(1), 57- Davis, T., Wolf, M., Bass, P., Middlebrooks, M., Kennen, E., Baker, D., . . . . Parker, R. (2006). Low literacy impairs comprehension of prescription drug warning labels. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 21(8), 847-851. Martin, D., Kripalani, S., DuRapau, J. (2012). Improving medication management among at-risk older adults. Journal of Gerontological Nursing, 38(6), 24-34. Roth, M., Weinberger, M., Campbell, W. (2009). Measuring the quality of medication use in older adults.Journal of the American Geriatrics Society,57(6), 1096-1102. Tarn, D. M., Heritage, J., Paterniti, D. A., Hays, R. D., Kravitz, R. L. (2006). Physician communication when prescribing new medications . Archive of Internal Medicine, 166(17), 1855-1862.
Friday, January 17, 2020
WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s participation in nation-building is an important ingredient in achieving an equitable, peaceful and more prosperous society. Gender equity and womenÃ¢â¬â¢s inclusion play a central role both as a litmus test and as an active variable shaping a more democratic, stabilized and developed society. To enhance the results of nation-building, the study suggests that nations should place a greater emphasis on the broader concept of human security from the earliest phase of nation-building efforts. In addition, leaders should establish governance based on principles of equity and consistent rule of law, and should include women in the earliest economic reconstruction activities. Women play a special role in the overall development of the country. Ã¢â¬Å"There is no chance for the welfare of the world unless the condition of women is improved. It is not possible for a bird to fly on only one wing. Ã¢â¬ Ã¢â¬Å"woman is the builder and moulder of a nationÃ¢â¬â¢s destiny, though delicate and soft as lily, she has a heart, stronger and bolder than that of man, she is the supreme inspiration for manÃ¢â¬â¢s onward march. Today the educated women have come out of their inferiority complex and are shouldering all kinds of responsibilities, as Managers, officers, TV and radio news reader, pilots, Ministers, Anchors, Musicians, Clerks, Stenographers, and what not? state is a Ã¢â¬Å"union of families and villagesÃ¢â¬ . Family is the basic unit of society, which is the foundation o f state itself. Happy families create a healthy society and healthy society is a pre-requisite of strong political order in democratic societies. A woman is an architect of society. She establishes the institution of family life, builds the home, brings up the children and makes them good citizens. Her strength in totality contributes in the making of an ideal family, ideal society and an ideal state. It has become essential for women to be politically empowered to achieve socio-economic justice. It has rightly been said who holds the purse holds the nation. As the women are better half of the nation, they deserve better share in political power. The male-dominated political parties and legislatures in the country do not bear with their equal number in epresentative institutions. What we lack is Ã¢â¬Å"political willÃ¢â¬ to understand the importance of women's role in nation building and all avenues open to them to get political power. MEN Should realize the power of women,And women should also realize their power too,what they can do for them,for their family,for their nation. They are the building blocks of nation building,In the words of Martin Luthar KIng ,Ã¢â¬ A mother's place is inside her home,But she should also make certain,she gets outside that home enough to help worth while crusades and actively mould the country her children will live in. She therefore holds a key position and her role in shaping the fate of the nation must be recognized and respected. This we see that a woman occupies a vital position in family,society and it is time we recognised and respected her ability. They should not search for the role models but try themselves to be role models in politics. It would be of no use giving equal share in parental property unless the social set-up is changed. That can be changed only by sincere implementation of laws made for women. A woman is shakti, the natural energy. The most ancient scriptures say that without the female power, it is not possible for humankind to survive. The female power has been the force behind all the great leaders of the world. Therefore, they must be politically empowered. The writing is on the wall Ã¢â¬â the hand that rocks the cradle is the hand that rules the world. OUR WOMEN have a great part to play in the progress of our country, as the mental and physical contact of women with life is much more lasting and comprehensive than that of men. For nothing was it said, Ã¢â¬Å"The hand that rocks the cradle rules the worldÃ¢â¬ . In the apron string of women is hidden the revolutionary energy, which can establish paradise on this earth. Woman is the magnificent creation of god, a multi faceted personality with the power of benevolence, adjustability, integrity and tolerance. She is companion of man, gifted with equal mental faculty, a protector and provider, the embodiment of love and affection. The role given to women in a society is a measuring rod and true index of its civilisation and cultural attainment.
Thursday, January 9, 2020
Akiba-zemi (GSP490 F12-S13) Book Review 1 Yukimi Ouchi January 7, 2013 Book Review on Ã¢â¬Å"Where We Stand: Class MattersÃ¢â¬ In her book Where We Stand: Class Matters, Bell Hooks address the issues of classism interlocking with racism, white supremacist ideology and sexism in contemporary American culture. Her arguments in this book are greatly tied to her personal experience that she moved up from working class to the upper class as she succeeds in academic life and writing many books. Through this book, the most important point she puts emphasis on is the acknowledgment of the complex interlocking of classism, racism and sexism. Bell Hooks is not a poor working-class any more,Ã¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦As far as she describes, she just enjoyed living with grandparents and she says that the lure of life was everywhere and in everything, but no one in the crowded house had a regular job or social security number, and no one talked about class even if they were open about money. Hooks personal memories tell me that poor people ar e afraid to talk about class because to be poor in the U.S. was to be an object of shame and ridicule, and because they were afraid to face the reality that makes them feel miserable, unpleasant, and unsecured. And the most importantly, most of them are not really conscious about how classism affects and exploits them. On the other hand, according to Hooks privileged (mostly white) people do not want to talk about class because they do not really want to change. Hooks says Citizens in the middle who live comfortable lives, luxurious lives in relation to the rest of the world, often fear that challenging classism will be their downfall, that simply by expressing concern for the poor they will end up like them, lacking the necessities of life. We can see the widening gap between rich and poor and more and more class-segregated society in the U.S. today, but this appears rather favorable circumstance for the privileged people with class power. I came to realize that whites of all class backgrounds seek to keep underprivileged non-white people in subordination to maintain their own class status. Hooks interprets it the victimsShow MoreRelatedAnalysis Of Christopher Doob s The First Edition Of Social Inequality And Social Stratification 1119 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesThe author structures this book in the direction towards a theoretical concept that attracts the reality of social inequality and stratification as a whole. Doob dissects this books into eleven chapters given that each chapter examines the inequality of stratification. Also during the readings of this book Doob used plenty of data to show the socioeconomic strata revolved around the history of America. 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